Surgical Treatment for Male Infertility
Common surgical procedures for male infertility may include:
Varicocelectomy: A varicocelectomy is a minor outpatient surgery frequently used to repair dilated scrotal veins (varicoceles). Studies have shown that repairing these dilated veins results in improved sperm movement, concentration and structure. Using a microscope to perform the surgery has been shown to improve treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of surgical complications.
Microsurgical Reconstruction: In some cases, obstructions causing infertility can be surgically corrected. These procedures include:
- Vasectomy Reversal (vasovasostomy): In the hands of an experienced microsurgeon, this procedure is very effective in reversing the blockage of sperm in the vas deferens caused by a vasectomy. Essentially, a vasectomy reversal reverses a previous vasectomy by reconnecting the two end of vas deferens to allow for passage of sperm during ejaculation. Occasionally, it is necessary to perform an epididymovasostomy (see below) in order to treat the blockage caused by a vasectomy.
- Epididymovasostomy: This microsurgical procedure may be performed when there is a blockage found in the epididymis. Epididymal obstruction may be present if there is a history of previous infection or injury, if the man has had a vasectomy, or if the man is a carrier of a cystic fibrosis gene. Epididymovasostomy should only be performed by an experienced microsurgeon.
Fig 1 (from AUA Foundation website)